Chapter 1. Installing PHPUnit

Requirements

PHPUnit 4.2 requires PHP 5.3.3; using the latest version of PHP is highly recommended.

PHPUnit requires the dom and json extensions, which are normally enabled by default.

PHPUnit also requires the pcre, reflection, and spl extensions. They are required by PHP core since 5.3.0 and normally cannot be disabled.

The code coverage report feature requires the Xdebug (2.1.3 or later) and tokenizer extensions. Generating XML reports requires the xmlwriter extension.

PHP Archive (PHAR)

The easiest way to obtain PHPUnit is to download a PHP Archive (PHAR) that has all required (as well as some optional) dependencies of PHPUnit bundled in a single file.

The phar extension is required for using PHP Archives (PHAR).

The openssl extension is required for using the --self-update feature of the PHAR.

If the Suhosin extension is enabled, you need to allow execution of PHARs in your php.ini:

suhosin.executor.include.whitelist = phar

Note

To download from https://phar.phpunit.de/ you need a client with TLS/SNI support; e.g., wget 1.14 (or later).

To globally install the PHAR:

$ wget https://phar.phpunit.de/phpunit.phar
$ chmod +x phpunit.phar
$ sudo mv phpunit.phar /usr/local/bin/phpunit
$ phpunit --version
PHPUnit x.y.z by Sebastian Bergmann.

You may also use the downloaded PHAR file directly:

$ wget https://phar.phpunit.de/phpunit.phar
$ php phpunit.phar --version
PHPUnit x.y.z by Sebastian Bergmann.

Windows

Globally installing the PHAR involves the same procedure as manually installing Composer on Windows:

  1. Create a directory for PHP binaries; e.g., C:\bin

  2. Append ;C:\bin to your PATH environment variable (related help)

  3. Download https://phar.phpunit.de/phpunit.phar and save the file as C:\bin\phpunit.phar

  4. Open a command line (e.g., press Windows+R » type cmd » ENTER)

  5. Create a wrapping batch script (results in C:\bin\phpunit.cmd):

    C:\Users\username> cd C:\bin
    C:\bin> echo @php "%~dp0phpunit.phar" %* > phpunit.cmd
    C:\bin> exit
    
  6. Open a new command line and confirm that you can execute PHPUnit from any path:

    C:\Users\username> phpunit --version
    PHPUnit x.y.z by Sebastian Bergmann.
    

For Cygwin and/or MingW32 (e.g., TortoiseGit) shell environments, you may skip step 5. above, simply save the file as phpunit (without .phar extension), and make it executable via chmod 775 phpunit.

Verifying PHPUnit PHAR Releases

All official releases of code distributed by the PHPUnit Project are signed by the release manager for the release. PGP signatures and SHA1 hashes are available for verification on phar.phpunit.de.

The following example details how release verification works. We start by downloading phpunit.phar as well as its detached PGP signature phpunit.phar.asc:

wget https://phar.phpunit.de/phpunit.phar
wget https://phar.phpunit.de/phpunit.phar.asc

We want to verify PHPUnit's PHP Archive (phpunit.phar) against its detached signature (phpunit.phar.asc):

gpg phpunit.phar.asc
gpg: Signature made Sat 19 Jul 2014 01:28:02 PM CEST using RSA key ID 6372C20A
gpg: Can't check signature: public key not found

We don't have the release manager's public key (6372C20A) in our local system. In order to proceed with the verification we need to retrieve the release manager's public key from a key server. One such server is pgp.uni-mainz.de. The public key servers are linked together, so you should be able to connect to any key server.

gpg --keyserver pgp.uni-mainz.de --recv-keys 0x4AA394086372C20A
gpg: requesting key 6372C20A from hkp server pgp.uni-mainz.de
gpg: key 6372C20A: public key "Sebastian Bergmann <sb@sebastian-bergmann.de>" imported
gpg: Total number processed: 1
gpg:               imported: 1  (RSA: 1)

Now we have received a public key for an entity known as "Sebastian Bergmann <sb@sebastian-bergmann.de>". However, we have no way of verifying this key was created by the person known as Sebastian Bergmann. But, let's try to verify the release signature again.

gpg phpunit.phar.asc
gpg: Signature made Sat 19 Jul 2014 01:28:02 PM CEST using RSA key ID 6372C20A
gpg: Good signature from "Sebastian Bergmann <sb@sebastian-bergmann.de>"
gpg:                 aka "Sebastian Bergmann <sebastian@php.net>"
gpg:                 aka "Sebastian Bergmann <sebastian@thephp.cc>"
gpg:                 aka "Sebastian Bergmann <sebastian@phpunit.de>"
gpg:                 aka "Sebastian Bergmann <sebastian.bergmann@thephp.cc>"
gpg:                 aka "[jpeg image of size 40635]"
gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature!
gpg:          There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner.
Primary key fingerprint: D840 6D0D 8294 7747 2937  7831 4AA3 9408 6372 C20A

At this point, the signature is good, but we don't trust this key. A good signature means that the file has not been tampered. However, due to the nature of public key cryptography, you need to additionally verify that key 6372C20A was created by the real Sebastian Bergmann.

Any attacker can create a public key and upload it to the public key servers. They can then create a malicious release signed by this fake key. Then, if you tried to verify the signature of this corrupt release, it would succeed because the key was not the "real" key. Therefore, you need to validate the authenticity of this key. Validating the authenticity of a public key, however, is outside the scope of this documentation.

Composer

Simply add a dependency on phpunit/phpunit to your project's composer.json file if you use Composer to manage the dependencies of your project. Here is a minimal example of a composer.json file that just defines a development-time dependency on PHPUnit 4.2:

{
    "require-dev": {
        "phpunit/phpunit": "4.2.*"
    }
}

For a system-wide installation via Composer, you can run:

composer global require "phpunit/phpunit=4.2.*"

Make sure you have ~/.composer/vendor/bin/ in your path.

Optional packages

The following optional packages are available:

PHP_Invoker

A utility class for invoking callables with a timeout. This package is required to enforce test timeouts in strict mode.

This package is included in the PHAR distribution of PHPUnit. It can be installed via Composer by adding the following "require-dev" dependency:

"phpunit/php-invoker": "*"
DbUnit

DbUnit port for PHP/PHPUnit to support database interaction testing.

This package is included in the PHAR distribution of PHPUnit. It can be installed via Composer by adding the following "require-dev" dependency:

"phpunit/dbunit": ">=1.2"
PHPUnit_Selenium

Selenium RC integration for PHPUnit.

This package is included in the PHAR distribution of PHPUnit. It can be installed via Composer by adding the following "require-dev" dependency:

"phpunit/phpunit-selenium": ">=1.2"
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